Testing

Testing of async code is generally quite tricky. Async code may finish in ms or even minutes. So you need a way to either mock it away completely like for example you do with jasmine.

spyOn(service,'method').and.callFake(() => {
    return {
        then : function(resolve, reject){
            resolve('some data')
        }
    }
})

or a more shorthand version:

spyOn(service,'method').and.callFake(q.when('some data'))

Point is you try to avoid the whole timing thing. Rxjs have historically, in Rxjs 4 provided the approach of using a TestScheduler with its own internal clock, which has enabled you to increment time. This approach have had two flavors :

Approach 1

let testScheduler = new TestScheduler();

// my algorithm
let stream$ = Rx.Observable
.interval(1000, testScheduler)
.take(5);



// setting up the test
let result;

stream$.subscribe(data => result = data);


testScheduler.advanceBy(1000);
assert( result === 1 )

testScheduler.advanceBy(1000);
... assert again, etc..

This approach was pretty easy to grok. The second approach was using hot observables and a startSchedule() method, looking something like this :

// setup the thing that outputs data
var input = scheduler.createHotObservable(
    onNext(100, 'abc'),
    onNext(200, 'def'),
    onNext(250, 'ghi'),
    onNext(300, 'pqr'),
    onNext(450, 'xyz'),
    onCompleted(500)
  );

// apply operators to it
var results = scheduler.startScheduler(
    function () {
      return input.buffer(function () {
        return input.debounce(100, scheduler);
      })
      .map(function (b) {
        return b.join(',');
      });
    },
    {
      created: 50,
      subscribed: 150,
      disposed: 600
    }
  );

//assert
collectionAssert.assertEqual(results.messages, [
    onNext(400, 'def,ghi,pqr'),
    onNext(500, 'xyz'),
    onCompleted(500)
  ]);

A little harder to read IMO but you still get the idea, you control time because you have a TestScheduler that dictates how fast time should pass.

This is all Rxjs 4 and it has changed a bit in Rxjs 5. I should say that what I am about to write down is a bit of a general direction and a moving target so this chapter will be updated, but here goes.

In Rxjs 5 something called Marble Testing is used. Yes that is related to Marble Diagram i.e you express your expected input and actual output with graphical symbols.

First time I had a look at the offical docs page I was like What now with a what now?. But after writing a few tests myself I came to the conclusion this is a pretty elegant approach.

So I will explain it by showing you code:

// setup
const lhsMarble = '-x-y-z';
const expected = '-x-y-z';
const expectedMap = {
    x: 1,
    y: 2,
    z : 3
};

const lhs$ = testScheduler.createHotObservable(lhsMarble, { x: 1, y: 2, z :3 });

const myAlgorithm = ( lhs ) => 
    Rx.Observable
    .from( lhs );

const actual$ = myAlgorithm( lhs$ );

//assert
testScheduler.expectObservable(actual$).toBe(expected, expectedMap);
testScheduler.flush();

Let's break it down part by part

Setup

const lhsMarble = '-x-y-z';
const expected = '-x-y-z';
const expectedMap = {
    x: 1,
    y: 2,
    z : 3
};

const lhs$ = testScheduler.createHotObservable(lhsMarble, { x: 1, y: 2, z :3 });

We essentially create a pattern instruction -x-y-z to the method createHotObservable() that exist on our TestScheduler. This is a factory method that does some heave lifting for us. Compare this to writing this by yourself, in which case it corresponds to something like:

let stream$ = Rx.Observable.create(observer => {
   observer.next(1);
   observer.next(2);
   observer.next(3);
})

The reason we don't do it ourselves is that we want the TestScheduler to do it so time passes according to its internal clock. Note also that we define an expected pattern and an expected map:

const expected = '-x-y-z';

const expectedMap = {
    x: 1,
    y: 2,
    z : 3
}

Thats what we need for the setup, but to make the test run we need to flush it so that TestScheduler internally can trigger the HotObservable and run an assert. Peeking at createHotObservable() method we find that it parses the marble patterns we give it and pushes it to list:

// excerpt from createHotObservable
 var messages = TestScheduler.parseMarbles(marbles, values, error);
var subject = new HotObservable_1.HotObservable(messages, this);
this.hotObservables.push(subject);
return subject;

Next step is assertion which happens in two steps 1) expectObservable() 2) flush()

The expect call pretty much sets up a subscription to out HotObservable

// excerpt from expectObservable()
this.schedule(function () {
    subscription = observable.subscribe(function (x) {
        var value = x;
        // Support Observable-of-Observables
        if (x instanceof Observable_1.Observable) {
            value = _this.materializeInnerObservable(value, _this.frame);
        }
        actual.push({ frame: _this.frame, notification: Notification_1.Notification.createNext(value) });
    }, function (err) {
        actual.push({ frame: _this.frame, notification: Notification_1.Notification.createError(err) });
    }, function () {
        actual.push({ frame: _this.frame, notification: Notification_1.Notification.createComplete() });
    });
}, 0);

by defining an internal schedule() method and invoking it. The second part of the assert is the assertion itself:

// excerpt from flush()
 while (readyFlushTests.length > 0) {
    var test = readyFlushTests.shift();
    this.assertDeepEqual(test.actual, test.expected);
}

It ends up comparing two lists to each other, the actual and expect list. It does a deep compare and verifies two things, that the data happened on the correct time frame and that the value on that frame is correct. So both lists consist of objects that looks like this:

{ 
  frame : [some number],
  notification : { value : [your value] }
}

Both these properties must be equal for the assert to be true.

Doesn't seem that bloody right?

Symbols

I havn't really explained what we looked at with:

-a-b-c

But it actually means something. - means a time frame passed. a is just a symbol. So it matters how many - you write in actual and expected cause they need to match. Let's look at another test so you get the hang of it and to introduce more symbols:

const lhsMarble = '-x-y-z';
const expected = '---y-';
const expectedMap = {
    x: 1,
    y: 2,
    z : 3
};

const lhs$ = testScheduler.createHotObservable(lhsMarble, { x: 1, y: 2, z :3 });

const myAlgorithm = ( lhs ) => 
    Rx.Observable
    .from( lhs )
    .filter(x => x % 2 === 0 );

const actual$ = myAlgorithm( lhs$ );

//assert
testScheduler.expectObservable(actual$).toBe(expected, expectedMap);
testScheduler.flush();

In this case our algorithm consists of a filter() operation. Which means 1,2,3 will not be emitted only 2. Looking at the ingoing pattern we have:

'-x-y-z'

And expected pattern

`---y-`

And this is where you clearly see that no of - matters. Every symbol you write be it - or x etc happens at a certain time, so in this case when x and z wont occur due to the filter() method it means we just replace them with - in the resulting output so

-x-y

becomes

---y

because x doesn't happen.

There are of course other symbols that are of interest that lets us define things like an error. An error is denoted as a # and below follows an example of such a test:

const lhsMarble = '-#';
const expected = '#';
const expectedMap = {
};

//const lhs$ = testScheduler.createHotObservable(lhsMarble, { x: 1, y: 2, z :3 });

const myAlgorithm = ( lhs ) => 
    Rx.Observable
    .from( lhs );

const actual$ = myAlgorithm( Rx.Observable.throw('error') );

//assert
testScheduler.expectObservable(actual$).toBe(expected, expectedMap);
testScheduler.flush();

And here is another symbol | representing a stream that completes:

const lhsMarble = '-a-b-c-|';
const expected = '-a-b-c-|';
const expectedMap = {
    a : 1,
    b : 2,
    c : 3
};

const myAlgorithm = ( lhs ) => 
    Rx.Observable
    .from( lhs );

const lhs$ = testScheduler.createHotObservable(lhsMarble, { a: 1, b: 2, c :3 });    
const actual$ = lhs$;

testScheduler.expectObservable(actual$).toBe(expected, expectedMap);
testScheduler.flush();

and there are more symbols than that like (ab) essentially saying that these two values are emitted on the same time frame and so on. Now that you hopefully understand the basics of how symbols work I urge you to write your own tests to fully grasp it and learn the other symbols presented at the official docs page that I mentioned in the beginning of this chapter.

Happy testing

results matching ""

    No results matching ""